Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Industry 2018 - Market Analysis, Overview, Size, Share, Trends, Production, Prospects, Segments and Forecasts to 2025

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    This report focuses on the global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) development in United States, Europe and China.
    
    The Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) sector consists of conformity assessment bodies who provide services ranging from auditing and inspection, to testing, verification, quality assurance and certification.
    Owing to the rising demand for good-quality and standard products across the industry, the demand of testing services increases rapidly.
    In 2017, the global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) market size was xx million US$ and it is expected to reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, with a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025.
    
    The key players covered in this study
        SGS
        Bureau Veritas
        Intertek
        Dekra
        Eurofins Scientific
        TUV SUD
        DNV GL
        TUV Rheinland
        Applus
        ALS
        TUV Nord
        Lloyd’s Register
        Mistras
        Element Materials Technology
        UL
    
    Market segment by Type, the product can be split into
        Testing Services
        Inspection Services
        Certification Services
        Others
    
    Market segment by Application, split into
        Consumer Goods & Retail
        Agriculture & Food
        Chemicals
        Construction & Infrastructure
        Energy & Power
        Industrial & Manufacturing
        Medical & Life Sciences
        Mining
        Oil & Gas and Petroleum
        Transportation
    
    Market segment by Regions/Countries, this report covers
        United States
        Europe
        China
        Japan
        Southeast Asia
        India
        Central & South America
    
    The study objectives of this report are:
        To analyze global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players.
        To present the Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) development in United States, Europe and China.
        To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their development plan and strategies.
        To define, describe and forecast the market by product type, market and key regions.
    
    In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) are as follows:
        History Year: 2013-2017
        Base Year: 2017
        Estimated Year: 2018
        Forecast Year 2018 to 2025
    For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.
  • 
    1 Report Overview
        1.1 Study Scope
        1.2 Key Market Segments
        1.3 Players Covered
        1.4 Market Analysis by Type
            1.4.1 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Growth Rate by Type (2013-2025)
            1.4.2 Testing Services
            1.4.3 Inspection Services
            1.4.4 Certification Services
            1.4.5 Others
        1.5 Market by Application
            1.5.1 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2025)
            1.5.2 Consumer Goods & Retail
            1.5.3 Agriculture & Food
            1.5.4 Chemicals
            1.5.5 Construction & Infrastructure
            1.5.6 Energy & Power
            1.5.7 Industrial & Manufacturing
            1.5.8 Medical & Life Sciences
            1.5.9 Mining
            1.5.10 Oil & Gas and Petroleum
            1.5.11 Transportation
        1.6 Study Objectives
        1.7 Years Considered
    
    2 Global Growth Trends
        2.1 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size
        2.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Growth Trends by Regions
            2.2.1 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Regions (2013-2025)
            2.2.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)
        2.3 Industry Trends
            2.3.1 Market Top Trends
            2.3.2 Market Drivers
            2.3.3 Market Opportunities
    
    3 Market Share by Key Players
        3.1 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Manufacturers
            3.1.1 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
            3.1.2 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
            3.1.3 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
        3.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players Head office and Area Served
        3.3 Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Product/Solution/Service
        3.4 Date of Enter into Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market
        3.5 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
    
    4 Breakdown Data by Type and Application
        4.1 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018)
        4.2 Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018)
    
    5 United States
        5.1 United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        5.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in United States
        5.3 United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        5.4 United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    6 Europe
        6.1 Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        6.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in Europe
        6.3 Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        6.4 Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    7 China
        7.1 China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        7.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in China
        7.3 China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        7.4 China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    8 Japan
        8.1 Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        8.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in Japan
        8.3 Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        8.4 Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    9 Southeast Asia
        9.1 Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        9.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in Southeast Asia
        9.3 Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        9.4 Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    10 India
        10.1 India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        10.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in India
        10.3 India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        10.4 India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    11 Central & South America
        11.1 Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size (2013-2018)
        11.2 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Players in Central & South America
        11.3 Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type
        11.4 Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application
    
    12 International Players Profiles
        12.1 SGS
            12.1.1 SGS Company Details
            12.1.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.1.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.1.4 SGS Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.1.5 SGS Recent Development
        12.2 Bureau Veritas
            12.2.1 Bureau Veritas Company Details
            12.2.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.2.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.2.4 Bureau Veritas Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.2.5 Bureau Veritas Recent Development
        12.3 Intertek
            12.3.1 Intertek Company Details
            12.3.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.3.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.3.4 Intertek Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.3.5 Intertek Recent Development
        12.4 Dekra
            12.4.1 Dekra Company Details
            12.4.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.4.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.4.4 Dekra Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.4.5 Dekra Recent Development
        12.5 Eurofins Scientific
            12.5.1 Eurofins Scientific Company Details
            12.5.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.5.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.5.4 Eurofins Scientific Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.5.5 Eurofins Scientific Recent Development
        12.6 TUV SUD
            12.6.1 TUV SUD Company Details
            12.6.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.6.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.6.4 TUV SUD Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.6.5 TUV SUD Recent Development
        12.7 DNV GL
            12.7.1 DNV GL Company Details
            12.7.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.7.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.7.4 DNV GL Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.7.5 DNV GL Recent Development
        12.8 TUV Rheinland
            12.8.1 TUV Rheinland Company Details
            12.8.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.8.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.8.4 TUV Rheinland Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.8.5 TUV Rheinland Recent Development
        12.9 Applus
            12.9.1 Applus Company Details
            12.9.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.9.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.9.4 Applus Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.9.5 Applus Recent Development
        12.10 ALS
            12.10.1 ALS Company Details
            12.10.2 Company Description and Business Overview
            12.10.3 Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Introduction
            12.10.4 ALS Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
            12.10.5 ALS Recent Development
        12.11 TUV Nord
        12.12 Lloyd’s Register
        12.13 Mistras
        12.14 Element Materials Technology
        12.15 UL
    
    13 Market Forecast 2018-2025
        13.1 Market Size Forecast by Regions
        13.2 United States
        13.3 Europe
        13.4 China
        13.5 Japan
        13.6 Southeast Asia
        13.7 India
        13.8 Central & South America
        13.9 Market Size Forecast by Product (2018-2025)
        13.10 Market Size Forecast by Application (2018-2025)
    
    14 Analyst's Viewpoints/Conclusions
    
    15 Appendix
        15.1 Research Methodology
            15.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
                15.1.1.1 Research Programs/Design
                15.1.1.2 Market Size Estimation
                12.1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
            15.1.2 Data Source
                15.1.2.1 Secondary Sources
                15.1.2.2 Primary Sources
        15.2 Disclaimer
        15.3 Author Details



    List of Tables and Figures
    
        Table Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Key Market Segments
        Table Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Covered
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Growth Rate by Type 2013-2025 (Million US$)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Market Share by Type 2013-2025
        Figure Testing Services Figures
        Table Key Players of Testing Services
        Figure Inspection Services Figures
        Table Key Players of Inspection Services
        Figure Certification Services Figures
        Table Key Players of Certification Services
        Figure Others Figures
        Table Key Players of Others
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Growth by Application 2013-2025 (Million US$)
        Figure Consumer Goods & Retail Case Studies
        Figure Agriculture & Food Case Studies
        Figure Chemicals Case Studies
        Figure Construction & Infrastructure Case Studies
        Figure Energy & Power Case Studies
        Figure Industrial & Manufacturing Case Studies
        Figure Medical & Life Sciences Case Studies
        Figure Mining Case Studies
        Figure Oil & Gas and Petroleum Case Studies
        Figure Transportation Case Studies
        Figure Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Report Years Considered
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2025 (Million US$)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size and Growth Rate 2013-2025 (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Regions 2013-2025 (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Regions 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Regions 2013-2018
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Regions 2013-2018
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Regions 2018
        Table Market Top Trends
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue by Manufacturers (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Manufacturers in 2018
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Manufacturers Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
        Table Key Players Head office and Area Served
        Table Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Product/Solution/Service
        Table Date of Enter into Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market
        Table Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue Market Share by Application in 2017
        Figure United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table United States Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table United States Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table Europe Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Europe Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table China Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table China Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table Japan Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Japan Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table Southeast Asia Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Southeast Asia Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table India Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table India Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Figure Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size 2013-2018 (Million US$)
        Table Central & South America Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Revenue (2017-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Central & South America Key Players Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share (2017-2018)
        Table Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Type (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
        Table Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Table Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Share by Application (2013-2018)
        Table SGS Company Details
        Table SGS Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018) (Million US$)
        Figure SGS Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table SGS Recent Development
        Table Bureau Veritas Company Details
        Table Bureau Veritas Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure Bureau Veritas Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table Bureau Veritas Recent Development
        Table Intertek Company Details
        Table Intertek Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure Intertek Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table Intertek Recent Development
        Table Dekra Company Details
        Table Dekra Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure Dekra Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table Dekra Recent Development
        Table Eurofins Scientific Company Details
        Table Eurofins Scientific Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure Eurofins Scientific Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table Eurofins Scientific Recent Development
        Table TUV SUD Company Details
        Table TUV SUD Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure TUV SUD Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table TUV SUD Recent Development
        Table DNV GL Company Details
        Table DNV GL Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure DNV GL Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table DNV GL Recent Development
        Table TUV Rheinland Company Details
        Table TUV Rheinland Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure TUV Rheinland Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table TUV Rheinland Recent Development
        Table Applus Company Details
        Table Applus Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure Applus Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table Applus Recent Development
        Table ALS Company Details
        Table ALS Revenue in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)(Million US$)
        Figure ALS Revenue Growth Rate in Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Business (2013-2018)
        Table ALS Recent Development
        Table TUV Nord Company Details
        Table Lloyd’s Register Company Details
        Table Mistras Company Details
        Table Element Materials Technology Company Details
        Table UL Company Details
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Regions (Million US$) 2018-2025
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Share by Regions (2018-2025)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Share by Regions in 2025
        Figure United States Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure Europe Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure China Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure Japan Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure Southeast Asia Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure India Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Figure Central & South America Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size Forecast (2018-2025)(Million USD)
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Product (2018-2025) (Million US$)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Product (2018-2025)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Product in 2025
        Table Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2018-2025) (Million US$)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application (2018-2025)
        Figure Global Testing, Inspection and Certification (TIC) Market Size by Application in 2025
        Table Research Programs/Design for This Report
        Figure Bottom-up and Top-down Approaches for This Report
        Figure Data Triangulation
        Table Key Data Information from Secondary Sources
        Table Key Data Information from Primary Sources